Verbs in future tense - 1st person, singular

As I mentioned in a previous post, each verb in Hebrew depends on a number of factors and varies according to them.


The first factor: 1st, 2nd or 3rd person.

The second factor: singular / plural

The third factor: masculine / feminine


Today, we're going to take it step by step, and talk about 1st person, singular. This applies to masculine and feminine forms.


"Normal" verbs, consisting of three root letters, will almost always fit the following formula:



Exercise

How do you say the verb in future tense, 1st person, singular?


שורש הפועל Root verb

1. ש.מ.ע

2. ק.ר.א

3. ל.מ.ד

4. ב.כ.ה

5. ש.ח.ה

6. ע.ל.ה

7. ש.ל.מ

8. ד.ב.ר

9. ט.פ.ל

10. ג.ר.ד (scratched)

11. פ.ר.ח (to bloom, usually about flowers but not only)

12. ב.ש.ל

13. צ.ל.מ

14. ש.י.ר

15. ש.ת.ה

16. נ.צ.ח

17. ש.ק.ר

18. ש.פ.ר (to improve someone or something)

19. ב.ע.ט (to kick)

20. צ.ר.ח

21. ל.ח.צ (to press)

22. ל.ח.ש (to whisper)


Now, some verbs (not many) have 4 root letters. In that case, we will use the formula by adding all 4 root letters.


  1. ש.ק.ש.ק ---> אשקשק (I will rattle in fear / I will shake a drink)

  2. כ.ד.ר.ר (to dribble)

  3. ב.ל.ב.ל (to confuse)

  4. ש.ח.ר.ר (to release)

  5. ג.ל.ג.ל (to roll)

  6. ק.ל.ק.ל (to spoil)

  7. צ.ל.צ.ל (to call on the phone)



There are a few exceptions. We'll call them "abnormal forms".


1. Verbs beginning with the letter Yod ("י").

2. Verbs that need a "Vav" ("ו") before the last root letter.

3. Verbs that are in a reflexive derived stem (bin-yan hit-pa-el בניין התפעל)

4. Verbs that are in a different, active derived stem (bin-yan hif-il בניין הפעיל)



Now, let's see how each of these "abnormal forms" works.



1. In verbs that begin with the letter Yod (״י״), we will delete the first letter (Yod) and use only the next two root letters.



Exercise

How do you say the following verbs in future tense, 1st person, singular?


שורש הפועל Root verb

1. י.ש.ב

2. י.צ.א

3. י.ש.נ

4. י.ר.ק

5. י.ד.ע

6. י.ר.ש (to inherit money)

7. י.ר.ד




2. Verbs that need a "Vav" ("ו") before the last root letter.



Exercise

How do you say the following verbs in future tense, 1st person, singular?


1. ת.פ.ס

2. ג.נ.ב

3. ג.מ.ר

4. ל.ג.מ

5. ש.מ.ר

6. ר.ק.ד

7. כ.ת.ב

8. ר.ש.מ

9. פ.ת.ר

10. ע.ז.ר

11. ג.ל.ש

12. ש.ט.פ

13. נ.ש.מ

14. ח.ט.פ

15. ר.ד.פ

16. ק.ט.פ (to pluck a flower)

17. ע.ב.ר (to pass, to cross)

18. ק.פ.צ

19. ק.ש.ר (to tie up)

20. ד.ח.פ

21. ה.ר.ס




3. Verbs that are in a reflexive derived stem (bin-yan hit-pa-el בניין התפעל)





Exercise

How do you say the following verbs in future tense, 1st person, singular?


  1. ל.ב.ש ---> אתלבש (I will dress (myself

  2. ר.ג.ל (to get used to it / to practice)

  3. ג.ב.ר (to get over)

  4. ר.ג.ש (to feel excited)

  5. ק.ר.ב (to get close to someone)

  6. ק.ש.ר (to call on the phone)

  7. ב.ל.ב.ל (to get confused)

  8. ח.מ.מ (to get warm)

  9. ק.ר.ר (to get cold)

  10. פ.צ.ל (to split up)

  11. ג.ל.ח (to shave)

  12. פ.ל.ל (to pray)

And since we all love exceptions - here are a few verbs in bin-yan hit-pa-el that have their own rules :)


ש.פ.ר (to improve myself) ---> אתשפר ---> אשתפר

ש.מ.ש (to use) ---> אתשמש ---> אשתמש

צ.ל.מ (to take a photo) ---> אתצלם ---> אצטלם

ש.ג.ע (to become crazy) ---> אתשגע ---> אשתגע

ס.כ.ל (to look) ---> אתסכל ---> אסתכל


Can you guess why these verbs have their own rules?




4. Verbs that are in a different, active derived stem (bin-yan hif-il בניין הפעיל)





Exercise

How do you say the following verbs in future tense, 1st person, singular?

  1. ל.ב.ש ---> אלביש (I will dress (someone

  2. ז.ה.ר ---> אזהיר I will warn (someone)

  3. מ.ש.כ ---> אמשיך I will continue

  4. ס.ב.ר

  5. ש.מ.נ

  6. נ.מ.כ

  7. ג.ב.ר

  8. ר.ב.צ (to beat, in a fight)

  9. ג.ז.מ (to exaggerate)

  10. ר.ג.ש

  11. ק.ר.ב (to sacrifice)


Exercise

Describe the following images by using verbs in future tense, 1st person, singular.


For example:

I will drink coffee - אני אשתה קפה - Ani esh-te ca-fe